Explorers discover northernmost Atlantic seeps, deep-sea canyon diversity, off U.S. Northeast

Public can join expedition live online as “citizen scientists” through Aug. 16

August 2, 2013

Octopus hatching.

Alongside the diverse coral community in Hydrographer Canyon, ROV Deep Discoverer observed a glass sponge containing cephalopod eggs. If you look closely you can see what looks to be a recent hatchling! (Cephalopods include squids, cuttlefishes and octopuses.)

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

Ocean explorers in July on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer discovered a wide diversity of seafloor features and communities of life in the largely unexplored deep-sea canyons off the northeast U.S. coast. Now through August 16, as the expedition continues, the public can join the mission as “citizen scientists,” at oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos, to see live seafloor video and listen as scientists discuss their observations in real time. During the expedition’s July leg, there were nearly 60,000 visits to the live streaming video.

Canyons represent some of the most striking features of the continental slope off the U.S. East Coast and may also be among the most productive areas in the deep sea. Organic matter and nutrient-rich sediments are often concentrated in these areas and strong currents flow through the steep and rugged terrain of the canyons, exposing hard substrates. With an increase in food availability and a variety of different habitat types across varying depths, submarine canyons may contain higher biodiversity and biomass than the adjacent continental slope, and are likely places to observe deep-sea corals, sponges, and other deep-sea marine organisms.

Methane hydrate.

Close-up of methane hydrate observed at a depth of 1,055 meters, near where bubble plumes were detected in previous sonar data. Pressure and cold temperatures create methane hydrate where molecules of natural gas are trapped in an ice-like cage of water molecules. Methane hydrates, a hydrate patch and chemosynthetic communities were seen during this dive, but no active seepage was observed. Seeps were investigated at other locations.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

During the July leg of the expedition, the ship’s multibeam sonar detected bubbles rising from the seafloor in several locations about 90 nautical miles southeast of Nantucket, Mass. These water-column plumes were traced to seafloor seeps where explorers observed chemosynthetic communities of life supported by chemicals rather than by sunlight. These are the northernmost seeps detected to date on the U.S. Atlantic margin.

The discoveries are expected to help fisheries and other ocean resource managers make better-informed decisions about how to manage, use and protect the ocean and its resources. Scientists believe the need to learn more about these relatively undisturbed canyon ecosystems is becoming more urgent, particularly as the potential for fishing, marine mining, and hydrocarbon exploration extends into the deep sea.

“We found these little-explored canyons are highly dynamic,” said Tim Shank, a deep-sea biologist from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, who participated from ashore. “With each dive of the ROVs (remotely operated vehicles that are undersea robots with cameras), we documented vertical walls with jagged rock failures, collapsed features, and extensive debris fields. Each canyon also appeared to host different biological communities — even different depths within the same canyon would reveal different types of coral and sponge ecosystems.

“As we explored different sides and depth zones of these canyons, we discovered a broad physical and biological diversity,” said Shank. “One canyon would host great animal diversity but low animal abundance and the next canyon would reveal just the opposite. As with any new deep-sea region we explore, we observed many suspected new species and remarkable range extensions of known species. All these observations will be highly informative to design and implement ocean conservation and management strategies in the near future.”

ROV Deep Discoverer.

ROV Deep Discoverer investigates the geomorphology of Block Canyon.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

Explorers also observed several instances of new coral life establishing itself, hundreds of skate and cat shark eggs on the seafloor and attached to deep-sea corals, and numerous octopus and squid guarding clutches of eggs. Initial impressions revealed these canyons are hot spots for biodiversity, hosting more than 25 species of corals, and hundreds of associated animals.

Andrea Quattrini, a Ph.D. student from Temple University in Philadelphia, said the expedition provided an immense opportunity for the ocean science and management communities to educate and train the next generation of explorers and deep-sea scientists.

“Their ability to interact with thirty to forty scientists with different areas of expertise, and the free exchange of ideas and discussion, further advanced the exploration and findings by defining new questions and outlining exciting avenues for future research,” she said.

Teachers may take advantage of an Expedition Educational Module at http://go.usa.gov/jn2h. The site provides products tied to the expedition including standards-based lesson plans and ocean-career connections.

Brendan Roark, a geographer from Texas A&M University who participated in the expedition from the ship, believes corals in the area may live as long as 4,000 years. “Deep-sea corals provide a new archive that can help us reconstruct past ocean and climate conditions,” he said. “They grow in a shrub-like fashion and most importantly, they deposit annual growth rings much like trees do. Because of their extremely long life spans, they may develop high resolution records of oceanographic and climate variability.”

An international team of more than 40 scientists and students – partners from multiple federal agencies and academic institutions – located mostly on shore, participated in the expedition’s first leg, receiving data and live video from the ship via telepresence-technology, using satellite and Internet pathways. The science team included several scientists at sea and others in Washington D.C., 12 U.S. states and two nations.

Scientists on the expedition’s July leg mapped 7,209 square kilometers of seafloor as they explored areas between 560 meters (1,837 feet) and 2,135 meters (7,005 feet) deep, in and between Block, Alvin, Atlantis, Veatch and Hydrographer canyons. The second leg is exploring Welker, Oceanographer, Lydonia, Nygren and Heezen canyons as well as Mytilus Seamount, one of the easternmost seamounts along the submerged northeast New England Seamount Chain within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Very little information exists for these areas. Scientists on both expedition legs are obtaining valuable data using the latest technologies including state-of-the-art multibeam sonar and NOAA’s new 6,000-meter ROV, Deep Discoverer, coupled with the Seirios camera sled and lighting platform.

NOAA Fisheries’ Deep-Sea Coral Research and Technology Program and the Northeast Regional planning team contributed scientific and financial support to this expedition. The program provides scientific information needed by NOAA and regional management councils to conserve and manage the nation’s deep-sea coral ecosystems.

NOAA’s Ocean Exploration Program is the only federal program dedicated to systematic exploration of the planet’s largely unknown ocean. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer is operated, managed and maintained by NOAA’s Office of Marine and Aviation Operations which includes commissioned officers of the NOAA Corps and civilian wage mariners. NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research operates, manages and maintains the cutting-edge ocean exploration systems on the vessel and ashore.

NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Join us on FacebookTwitter and our other social media channels.

 

Additional Photos

Close up view of a stalked crinoid’s (sea lily) mouth and arms.

Close up view of a stalked crinoid’s (sea lily) mouth and arms. At least two species of crinoids were noted during a dive at Block Canyon, including stalked crinoids.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

Corals.

Corals, including cup corals and bubblegum corals reside on the hard substrate near the edge of a mussel bed.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer.

NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, “America’s Ship for Ocean Exploration,” is the only federally funded U.S. ship assigned to systematically explore our largely unknown ocean for the purpose of discovery and the advancement of knowledge. Telepresence, using real-time broadband satellite communications, connects the ship and its discoveries live with audiences ashore.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)

Deep Discoverer.

During NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer’s mid-expedition port visit to New York City, Dave Lovalvo answers questions for visiting Sea Cadets, about NOAA’s new ROV (remotely operated vehicle) Deep Discoverer, behind Lovalvo. The ROV weighs 9,200 pounds in air, and can dive as deep as 6,000 meters (nearly 20,000 feet). Sea Cadets are with the youth program of the Navy League of the United States.

High resolution (Credit: NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program/2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition)